Petchoa- Super Cals

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Petchoa – SuperCals

Calibrachoa

Propagation
Petchoa can be propagated in various tray sizes including 72, 84, and 105’s. Stick one cutting per cell. Propagation Cycle: 6 weeks

Media

  • Choose a well-drained aerated propagation media
  • Avoid media containing peat moss which will hold too much water
  • Choose a blended media with other components or inorganic media such as Oasis® or Rockwool®

Bottom Heat

  • Bottom heat will promote healthy root development.
  • Maintain bottom heat at 70-75°F/21-24°C.
  • Mist will cool the media temperature. Monitor media temperature closely and frequently.

Rooting Hormones

  • Calibrachoa roots easily without the use of rooting hormone. However, time to root and uniformity in rooting may be improved with use of a hormone.
  • Either liquid or powder formulations work equally well. Choose a product with up to 2500 ppm IBA or up to 500 ppm NAA.

Misting

  • Average days with mist vary from 6-8 days depending on environmental conditions in the greenhouse.
  • Mist cuttings so they remain turgid but avoid over misting that results in saturated media.
  • Over misting will result in slow rooting and possible problems with root rot and botrytis.

Pinching

  • PetChoa can be pinched in propagation if stretch becomes an issue. Pinch cuttings in the third week.

Growth Regulating

  • Stretch may be an issue under low light levels. PetChoa respond to B-Nine® sprays at 1500ppm.

Fertility

  • Begin feeding as roots are visible. Begin with 75 ppm nitrogen then increase to 150 ppm. Choose a fertilizer with low levels of ammonium based nitrogen and avoid overhead feeding with fertilizer containing phosphorus.
  • Maintain pH at 5.6-5.9
  • Maintain EC at 0.75-0.80 mmhos.

Growing On

Media
Choose a media with the following traits:

  • Good aeration
  • Porosity between 5-15%
  • Sterile

Irrigation/Fertilization

  • Avoid excess irrigation and fertilization while plants are establishing which can lead to slow root development. Once plants have established do not allow drying excessively which will result in damage to foliage and flowers.
  • Fertilizer Regime
    • Begin fertilizing 2 weeks after transplant.
    • Choose a complete balanced fertilizer complete with minor elements.
    • Apply 250-350 ppm constant liquid feed.
    • Additional iron may be needed – apply as iron chelate or iron sulfate (always rinse foliage when using iron sulfate).
    • A slow release product may also be used to supplement a constant liquid feed program and may provide improved performance for the consumer.
  • Maintain pH between 5.5-6.0
  • Optimum EC is 1.8 to 2.4 mmhos. Provide periodic clear water application if excess salts accumulate.

Temperature/Humidity
Petchoa can be grown successfully at a wide range of temperatures but for best results the crop should be established warm. As root growth and top growth begins temperatures can be reduced.

Establishing temperature: 60°F/16°C average daily temperature

Temperatures for growing on: 60-70°F/16-21°C day and 60°F/13-16°C night

Cool Grow regime – Nights can be reduced to 50°F/13°C but flowering will be delayed 7-10 days.  SuperCals will tolerate nights to 30°F/-1°C as long as day temperatures recover.  This allows the grower the opportunity to finish SuperCals outdoors4

At lower temperatures:

  • Cooler night temperature will promote flowering.

At warmer temperatures:

  • Excess vegetative growth may be a problem and flowering not as prolific.

Relative Humidity

  • Maintain relative humidity below 70% and provide good air circulation to avoid problems with botrytis.

Light
PetChoa prefers bright light. For best results grow in a greenhouse with retractable roofs or in a field production setting.
Provide:

  • 4000 foot candles/43,000 5lux minimum
  • 6000 foot candles/64,600 lux maximum
  • SuperCals are day neutral in high light regions
    *Use of supplemental light (14-16 hours, beginning at midnight) is beneficial for early spring flowering and in low light regions.

Spacing
Establish plants pot tight than space to:

  • 4” pots – 5-6” centers (approximately 2 per sq. ft.)
  • 6” pots/1 gallon – 14” centers
  • 8” pots – 18” centers

Pinching
1st Pinch- may be in propagation
2nd Pinch- pinch to 5 leaves once roots are established
Additional Pinch- to correct for stretch or time to flower additional pinches or a shear may be performed. On mature plants this will delay flowering 3-5 weeks
* In 4” containers or for a “quick turn” crop pinching is not necessary

Plant Growth Regulators
Low light, warm temperatures and positive DIF cause stretching. Use high light, cool temperatures and a slight negative DIF for optimum growth control.
If needed, Calibrachoa responds to:

  • B-Nine® as a spray  up to 2500 ppm
  • Bonzi®  or A-Rest as a spray at 3-5 ppm

*Apply any PGR applications prior to visible bud set to avoid delay in time to flower. Late PGR’s may also distort flowers.  SuperCal Terracotta will turn pink with B-Nine applications.

Insect and Disease Concerns
Insects

  • Aphids
  • Caterpillars
  • Fungus Gnats
  • Leafminer
  • Thrips
  • Whiteflies

Diseases

  • Botrytis
  • Powdery Mildew
  • Root and stem rots
  • Viruses

Trouble Shooting

SYMPTOM: Yellowing of young leaves
Possible Solutions

  • Check that fertilizer injectors are functioning properly.
  • Ensure media pH is between 5.5-6.3 – adjust if necessary.
  • Check iron levels in soil and tissue. Supplement with iron sulfate drenches if media pH is high or with iron chelate as a spray or drench, if media pH is normal.

SYMPTOM: Yellowing of lower foliage
Possible Solutions

  • Check that fertilizer injectors are functioning properly.
  • Check for low nitrogen levels in soil and tissue.
  • Check E.C. levels of soil for high salts.
  • Check magnesium levels in soil and tissue.
    Supplement with magnesium sulfate as a drench if levels are low.
  • Check for root or stem rot.

SYMPTOM: Delayed flowering
Possible Solutions

  • Supplement daylength if growing during short-day conditions of early spring. Use lights to provide 14-16 total hours of light.
  • Late applications of plant growth regulators can cause flower delay. Avoid treatment once buds are visible.

Crop Scheduling (Regular)

*Use of supplemental lighting is recommended for all early spring production

Crop Scheduling (Fast Crop No Pinch)

 

 

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